References for Symptoms

The items on the list of behavioral symptoms of canine cognitive dysfunction on this website were gleaned from the following sources.

Bain, Melissa J., Benjamin L. Hart, Kelly D. Cliff, and William W. Ruehl. 2001. “Predicting Behavioral Changes Associated with Age-Related Cognitive Impairment in Dogs.” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 218 (11): 1792-1795.

Cummings, Brian J., Elizabeth Head, Arman J. Afagh, Norton W. Milgram, and Carl W. Cotman. 1996. “β-Amyloid Accumulation Correlates with Cognitive Dysfunction in the Aged Canine.” Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 66 (1): 11-23.

Cummings, Brian J., Elizabeth Head, William Ruehl, Norton W. Milgram, and Carl W. Cotman. 1996. “The Canine as an Animal Model of Human Aging and Dementia.” Neurobiology of Aging 17 (2): 259-268.

Landsberg, Gary, Amanda Florsheim, Valerie Dramard, Teodoro Bottiglieri, and David Mischoulon. 2008. “S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) and cognitive dysfunction in dogs (Sponsored by Virbac Animal Health): A Roundtable Discussion.” DVM360.com.

Landsberg, Gary M., Jeff Nichol, and Joseph A. Araujo. 2012. “Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome: A Disease of Canine and Feline Brain Aging.” Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 42 (4): 749-768.

Neilson, Jacqueline C., Benjamin L. Hart, Kelly D. Cliff, and William W. Ruehl. 2001. “Prevalence of Behavioral Changes Associated with Age-Related Cognitive Impairment in Dogs.” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 218 (11): 1787-1791.

Osella, Maria Cristina, Giovanni Re, Rosangela Odore, Carlo Girardi, Paola Badino, Raffaella Barbero, and Luciana Bergamasco. 2007. “Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome: Prevalence, Clinical Signs and Treatment with a Neuroprotective Nutraceutical.” Applied Animal Behaviour Science 105 (4): 297-310.

Salvin, Hannah E., Paul D. McGreevy, Perminder S. Sachdev, and Michael J. Valenzuela. 2010. “Under Diagnosis of Canine Cognitive Dysfunction: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Older Companion Dogs.” The Veterinary Journal 184 (3): 277-281.

Salvin, Hannah E., Paul D. McGreevy, Perminder S. Sachdev, and Michael J. Valenzuela. 2011. “The Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Rating Scale (CCDR): A Data-Driven and Ecologically Relevant Assessment Tool.” The Veterinary Journal 188 (3): 331-336.